Those with dementia judge the passage of time quicker than older adults without dementia, as well as younger adults. This is for prospective time perception, where people are instructed to estimate an upcoming time interval; and retrospective time estimation, where people judge time after the event has occurred, requiring them to mentally travel back in time.
As a practical example, a person with dementia is likely to underestimate how long they waited at a bus stop if asked when the bus arrived; retrospective time perception and how long they will be on the bus for their specified journey if asked as the bus started; prospective time perception. Those diagnosed with dementia may underestimate time due to difficulties in recollecting all events in the short-term past, creating a feeling of a relative empty time travel.
Someone without dementia may remember the boy cycling his bike, the yellow car parked next to the shop, the noisy lawn mower, and the couple playing tennis, on their walk to the bus stop; while someone with dementia is likely to remember fewer of these events, creating the sense that less has occurred and therefore less time has past.
There is a link between the perception of time and memory function in those with dementia. Family members often report their loved ones with dementia sometimes live in the past, even reverting back to first languages. This is because memory is not just one process in the brain, but a collection of different systems. This was despite showing impairments in short-term memory and general cognitive functioning. This frequency of use memory pattern is mirrored in bilingual people with dementia.
A friend commented that her Yia-Yia Grandmother , who immigrated to Australia from Greece over 50 years ago, is increasingly conversing in Greek despite predominantly speaking English for decades causing problems for my monolingual English-speaking friend. Those with dementia often revert to their first language. This commonly begins with utterances from the first language appearing in conversation from the second language. This occurs more often in those less proficient in their second language, rather than being related to the age of acquisition of their second language.
So, how does this happen? Families and friends of those affected by dementia often do not know how to respond when their loved ones rely on these remote memories, at heart, living in the past. We sense our connection to events past and present. A librarian might assess his or her role in the development of libraries and library service. And at this stage we seek to pass on our knowledge and influence others.
Gail Sheehy Books Passage to the Past
These contributions can take the form of mentoring, writing memoirs, or establishing endowments. Another researcher in fact labeled subjects reminiscers if at least 40 percent of the verbalizations of their thoughts concerned events occurring five or more years previously Merriam Our perception of time is not static. We sometimes perceive that time is accelerating or that matters are becoming urgent Fourez We move from dwelling on episodic memories to a more unified view of time-bound events. We move from defining ourselves by particular historical moments to the connections between those moments.
The fourth stage contributing to life review is the accumulation of factual knowledge.
Past Life Wounds - Present Life Problems
At this stage we wish to know more to build on prior knowledge. Reminiscence is recalling facts. People of all adult age groups indicated that the top three types of events they frequently reminisced about were events in which they were successful, events associated with a trip and events connected to some exciting experience. These events were more highly rated overall than experiences with the opposite sex, events associated with embarrassment, and tragic events. Merriam , 46 There is a positive relationship between how frequently a person engages in reminiscing and how satisfied they are with their lives.
High reminiscers had greater life satisfaction. The fifth and final stage is the perception of life as a series of stages or phases. This is a stage that we will successfully pass through as we have navigated other stages in the past.
- George Fitzclarence, Earl of Munster, Son of King William IV;
- Alice, or the Mysteries — Book 10.
- Past Life Wounds - Present Life Problems.
- Advances in Botanical Research;
We will achieve certain goals and then move onto the next stage. Vann , 5 Library spirit provided motivation and incentive, confidence, and high standards. We can gain perspective by realizing that those who preceded us in the profession of librarianship also met with struggles. They also encountered innovations: open stacks, electric lighting, typewriters, book mobiles and the expansion of services to new clientele.
Past Life Wounds
Professional life review allows us to reflect on the past while preparing us for the future. This is not a call to abandon the present to revel in nostalgia.
This is not a call to resist progress. Instead this is a sound and benevolent acknowledgment of our common memory, a pause that allows us to embrace our inheritance and legacy.
Talking about the past
Without professional life review we run the risk of obscuring context and neglecting reflection. We might fail to resolve conflicts and fears and instead close our careers with feelings of unfulfillment, antagonism or exclusion. Life term review helps us meet present challenges more successfully as we look to the past and see, with satisfaction, our accomplishments.
Acknowledging the past should bring us courage and encouragement. The feeling of predestination may come to the forefront in this period of self-discovery. We may feel that professionally we are predestined to play a special role in the changes that affect others. This onus seems to mark us as a chosen people.
Librarianship is in the midst of a creative period: an end to some ways of operating and the beginning of many new journeys and opportunities. Today, faced with conflict and opportunity, and the choice to grow or succumb to the onset of change, we have the right to:. Professional life review is not an aimless pursuit but rather it is the formalized summary of our contributions to our workplaces locally and globally.
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Looking back can help us envision the future. Life review opens a door through which we can enter together, a door to the past that leads us to meet the future. So let us celebrate ourselves and our professional culture and transform dialogue into shared wisdom through life review. Butler, Robert N. Kildal, Arne. American Influence on European Librarianship. In Herron, Ronald H. Barry, eds. Introduction to Educational Gerontology.