Log In Sign Up. The role of phonological awareness in treatments of dyslexic primary school children Acta neurobiologiae experimentalis, Klaus Willmes. The role of phonological awareness in treatments of dyslexic primary school children. Loading Preview. Related Papers. Doctoral thesis: Subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia. By Devon Wybrow. Development of a remediation program for Egyptian dyslexic children.
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Synonyms and antonyms of phonologisch in the German dictionary of synonyms
By Jean Ecalle. Using a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design and measurements across a period of 2 years, we tested the effects of two interventions: a consecutive combination of a musical and a phonological training and a phonological training alone. The design made it possible to disentangle effects of the musical training alone as well the effects of its combination with the phonological training. The outcome measures of these groups were compared with the control group with multivariate analyses, controlling for a number of background variables.
We found a positive relationship between musical abilities and phonological awareness. Yet, whereas the well-established phonological training produced the expected effects, adding a musical training did not contribute significantly to phonological awareness development. Training effects were partly dependent on the initial level of phonological awareness.
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Possible reasons for the lack of training effects in the musical part of the combination condition as well as practical implications for early literacy education are discussed. Well-developed language competencies and literacy skills are basic requirements for academic success and social integration. Thus, for children at risk an early training of these competencies is key for promoting individual academic development. Helping children to catch up with their peers in language-related competencies as early as possible prevents disparities in subsequent phases of academic development.
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Not least because of the growing linguistic, cultural, and socioeconomic diversity and the associated academic heterogeneity, many countries throughout Europe as well as the U. Among the measures designed to promote language-related skills, the support of early literacy development by training phonological awareness is a prominent example. Phonological awareness, as a part of metalinguistic awareness, includes the ability to detect, analyze, and manipulate sounds in oral language Tunmer and Hoover, ; Lonigan, Examples are the ability to rhyme words, to segment words into syllables as well as to blend and delete phonemes.
The ability to analyze and manipulate larger sound units, such as words and syllables, is labeled as phonological awareness in the broader sense broad whereas the ability to analyze and manipulate small sound units phonemes is referred to as phonological awareness in the narrower sense narrow; Skowronek and Marx, Phonological awareness is the most important specific predictor of literacy acquisition Bishop and League, The skills associated with phonological awareness are of prime importance in the first steps of learning to read and write.
Ultimately, verbal speech and sounds have to be broken down into discrete units i. Longitudinal studies show that children with highly developed phonological awareness tend to profit more from early literacy instruction and reach higher levels of reading competency than children with less developed phonological awareness e.
Meta-analyses on the effectiveness of phonological awareness training programs also support the view that early preschool literacy skills are important predictors of reading and writing development.
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Not only do these trainings on average enhance phonological awareness in children, they also improve subsequent literacy development see Bus and van Ijzendoorn, ; Ehri et al. Both meta-analyses revealed strong direct effects on phonological awareness and strong to medium-sized effects on reading competencies in intervention studies that were carried out in English-speaking countries.
However, the results of two recent meta-analyses in the German context indicate that the effect sizes are not necessarily consistent across different languages Fischer and Pfost, ; Wolf et al. Although the German meta-analyses found direct effects of the trainings on phonological awareness as well as the transfer-effects on reading and writing skills, they were substantially lower than the effects reported by English meta-analyses. These discrepancies in the findings may be due to differences in the orthographic consistency between languages, with German having a more consistent orthography than English.
More specifically, the importance of phonological awareness as a prerequisite for literacy development may depend on the extent to which the correspondence between phonemes and graphemes is consistent. Lower consistency as in English compared to German may require phonological awareness skills to a higher degree Fischer and Pfost, ; Wolf et al.
This program has been shown to be effective in a series of empirical studies with German-speaking children e. In addition, several studies revealed that minority language children benefit from the training to a similar degree as children who only speak the majority language in their family Weber et al. However, despite showing similar gains in phonological awareness overall, the minority language children continued to lag behind their majority-language peers in the level of phonological awareness they reached after the intervention.
In searching for measures that may help to close this gap, some limitations of the available approaches become obvious. Although the training instruments at hand appear to be effective overall, it would be difficult to raise the probability of compensatory effects in children with weak initial phonological skills by simply extending their application. There seems to be a sensitive phase of phonological awareness development, with trainings typically having the largest impact in children between 5 and 6 years of age Bus and van Ijzendoorn, ; Ehri et al.
To benefit from a verbal phonological training, a certain level of language proficiency, and basic linguistic knowledge are necessary for adopting a reflective perspective on linguistic phenomena Marx et al. These prerequisites are associated with children's general development and therefore with age Gathercole and Baddeley, Thus, a central goal of the present research was to explore an additional, non-verbal approach to promoting phonological awareness that can be combined with the well-established verbal trainings.
Theoretical considerations as well as evidence from a few empirical intervention studies suggest that musical training in early childhood may enhance phonological awareness skills e. McMullen and Saffran , for example, suggest that music and language share the same basic processing mechanisms, especially at an early stage of child development.
In both language and music only combinations of single auditory stimuli form meaningful units e. Kraus and Chandrasekaran, In a first step, to assign single stimuli like phonemes or pitches to similar or different categories, they have to be perceived and differentiated Patel, , With increasing age, children are becoming aware of and are able to distinguish even subtle nuances within a category e. The ability of perceiving, differentiating, and categorizing linguistic as well as musical stimuli in early childhood is theorized to be based on the same cognitive processes responsible for converting auditory stimuli in general.
According to the shared sound category learning mechanism hypothesis postulated by Patel , the results of learning music and language are different, but the development in both domains is based on shared cognitive processes, therefore influencing each other. Similarly, Koelsch and Siebel , p. Forgeard et al. For example, they assume that putting words to music during the activity of singing calls for the exaggerated accentuation of words helping children to learn to segment words into syllables. Moreover, the notation of music shares similar features involved in reading and writing activities such as mapping sound symbols or pattern recognition.
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Based on these assumptions, to be engaged in either musical or phonological activities should have positive effects on phonological awareness for a further discussion and a review of empirical results see also Asaridou and McQueen, There are some correlative analyses corroborating the assumption that musical activities and phonological competencies are indeed positively related.
Anvari et al. They found medium to strong correlations between phonemic awareness and musical ability measured by rhythm discrimination, chord discrimination, melody discrimination, rhythm production, and chord analysis. Even the correlation between reading skills and musical ability proved to be significant.
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Furthermore, findings from a hierarchical regression analysis revealed that musical awareness had a predictive effect on reading skills in its own right, even after its shared variance with phonological awareness was taken into account. Lamb and Gregory examined phonological awareness, reading readiness, and musical ability in pre-readers at the age of 4—5 years.
Musical ability was measured with two specifically designed subtests tapping timbre and pitch discrimination. While timbre discrimination was unrelated to all other measures, pitch discrimination correlated significantly with phonological awareness and both reading tests. Furthermore, the expected correlation between phonological awareness and early reading skill was significant.
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The results revealed not only significant correlations between productive and perceptive musical abilities with phonological awareness but also associations with further important precursors such as working memory and rapid retrieval of information from long-term memory. Studies with older children provide additional correlational evidence for the interdependence of musical and phonological skills. Loui et al. Using a correlational design, Zuk et al.
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Elementary school students aged 6—8 years showed significant shared variance on the applied musical sequence transcription task and literacy skills including reading speed and accuracy as well as word writing. More conclusive evidence in terms of causality stems from training studies designed to promote phonological awareness with musical activities. However, the effect was only observable in the awareness of larger phonological units broad. Children who received intensive daily music lessons significantly improved in all six areas of phonological awareness that were investigated discrimination and production of rhymes, segmentation of sentences and syllables, isolation of initial phonemes, and deletion of sounds.
The control group, which received musical training only once a week, improved significantly less in four of the six areas and not at all in rhyming skills. In comparison, Moritz et al. Both studies used a sound experimental design, designed the training content very carefully, and took relevant background variables such as the socioeconomic status or cognitive abilities into account. However, due to the small sample sizes, the stability, and generalizability of the results are unclear.
The children in the experimental group received 4 months of music instruction for 30 min per week, whereas the control group did not receive any music instruction. Besides singing and rhythmical education with body percussion, kinesthetic movement, and playing percussion instruments, the treatment lessons in this study also included graphic charts with symbols like dots, squares, or lines representing steady beat, word rhythms, or melodic contour.
Central results of the study were significant advantages of the experimental group compared to the control group especially for phoneme segmentation fluency. The major limitation of this study is its quasi-experimental design. Furthermore, important background variables, such as the socioeconomic status of children's families were not included in the statistical analyses, even though the authors reported differences between the two groups in this regard on a descriptive level.
A recent meta-analysis on the effects of musical trainings on literacy related skills demonstrated only small effects of musical trainings on phonological awareness and reading Gordon et al. However, the authors point to the remarkable differences in the quality of studies e.
If this were the case, a combination of both trainings should have stronger effects on phonological awareness than a phonological training alone. Combining the two types of training would take advantage of their respective advantages. First, it is possible to conduct musical trainings earlier than phonological trainings. There is no evidence that conventional phonological trainings are effective before 5—6 years of age and attempts to advance phonological trainings to the penultimate year of preschool Rothe et al.
However, a musical training can be designed in a way that requires less language proficiency and linguistic knowledge than a verbal phonological training. This offers the opportunity for an earlier start of intervention. Second, combining different training approaches with different contents may increase the overall attractiveness of the training as diverse interests and preferences are covered. This may have a positive impact on the engagement and motivation of trainers as well as participants c.
Drawing on the theoretical assumptions and the available empirical evidence described above, the present study investigated three research questions and hypotheses:. Does a musical training applied in the penultimate year of preschool have an impact on phonological awareness? We expect a small positive effect on phonological awareness, especially on phonological awareness broad.